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Home » Episode 411: An enormous discover from Africa and a dinosaur egg filled with crystals

Episode 411: An enormous discover from Africa and a dinosaur egg filled with crystals

Episode 411: An enormous discover from Africa and a dinosaur egg filled with crystals. A bonebed of over two dozen iguanodontians from a brand new species, a brand new ceratopsian, and far more


  • Not less than 27 iguanodontians from the brand new genus, Iyuku, had been found in a South African bonebed supply
  • New chasmosaurine ceratopsid dinosaur Bisticeratops froeseorum was found. supply
  • Scientists named a brand new kind of dinosaur egg (which was discovered filled with crystals). supply
  • Scientists discovered a pathology in a titanosaur egg that would inform us extra about dinosaur reproductive conduct. supply
  • A bunch of dinosaur tracks and trackways had been present in Alberta, Canada, which will present dinosaurs being sociable. supply
  • One other Tyrannosaurus rex is happening public sale. supply
  • Scientists discovered new dinosaur tracks in Alaska due to an earthquake. supply
  • The Badlands Dinosaur Museum discovered child dinosaurs this summer season. supply



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The dinosaur of the day: Oxalaia

  • Spinosaurid that lived within the Late Cretaceous (about 100.5 to 93.9 million years in the past) in what’s now northeastern Brazil (Alcântara Formation)
  • Not many bones discovered, however in all probability regarded like different spinosaurs
  • Carefully associated to Spinosaurus, and could also be a junior synonym of Spinosaurus
  • Had an elongated jaw
  • In all probability had quick again legs, sturdy arms, and a protracted tail
  • Unclear if it had a sail on its again, as a result of no fossils discovered (until it seems it’s a junior synonym to Spinosaurus)
  • Cranium estimated to be 4.4 ft (1.35 m) lengthy
  • Spinosaurus cranium has been estimated to be between 5.25 to five.75 ft (1.6 to 2.1 m) lengthy. Be taught extra in episode 300
  • Estimated to be 39 to 46 ft (12 to 14 m) lengthy, based mostly on evaluating the snout to the snout of MSNM V4047 (a really massive Spinosaurus cf., present in 2005)
  • Estimated to weigh 5 to 7 tons
  • Enamel weren’t serrated
  • In all probability ate fish, however could have additionally eaten dinosaurs and pterosaurs (based mostly on proof from different spinosaurids)
  • Fossils present in 1999 on Cajual Island
  • Discovered two partial cranium bones
  • Described in 2011 by Alexander Kellner and others
  • Sort and solely species is Oxalaia quilombensis
  • Genus identify refers back to the African deity Oxalá. Based on the paper describing Oxalaia, “essentially the most revered masculine deity within the African pantheon, launched in Brazil throughout slavery”
  • Species identify refers back to the Brazilian quilombo settlements (the place descendants of former Brazilian slaves stay), a few of which had been on Cajual Island
  • Holotype present in situ, and consists of the fused premaxillae (entrance of the snout)
  • Additionally referred an incomplete left maxilla (higher jaw)
  • Holotype was a uncommon discover as a result of sturdy tides eroded many fossils on the website the place it was discovered
  • A whole lot of spinosaurid tooth present in the identical space
  • Partial cranium and tooth had distinct options, comparable to two alternative tooth in every socket, and a extra rounded tip of the snout
  • Latest spinosaurid tooth paper (episode 409), talked about how spinosaurids had two alternative tooth, so undecided how distinct a characteristic this nonetheless is
  • Had seven premaxillary tooth
  • MSNM V4047 solely had six premaxillary tooth
  • Robert Smyth and others in 2020 discovered Oxalaia didn’t have sufficient distinct options to be its personal taxon, and as a substitute any variations had been as a consequence of particular person variation and that it was a junior synonym of Spinosaurus (which might imply Spinosaurus had a wider distribution than beforehand thought)
  • Fossils had been on the Nationwide Museum of Rio de Janeiro, however they could have been destroyed within the 2018 fireplace
  • Lived in a tropical, forested space, with a number of conifers
  • Space surrounded by an arid panorama
  • Different dinosaurs that lived across the identical time and place embrace carcharodontosaurids, dromaeosaurs, sauropods, theropods
  • Different animals that lived across the identical time and place embrace pterosaurs, crocodylomorphs, turtles, fish
  • Comparable animals and vegetation discovered within the Kem Kem Beds of Morocco from the identical time interval (Africa and South America was linked as Gondwana, and components had been nonetheless linked throughout this time interval)
  • Can see Oxalaia within the recreation Jurassic World: Primal Ops

Enjoyable Truth:

If dinosaurs had NASA, they may have prevented extinction (see Double Asteroid Redirection Check).

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